# Redirects, custom 404s, and SPA support
This feature is new, and requires Kubo 0.16 or later.
This feature enables support for redirects, single-page applications, custom 404 pages, and moving to IPFS-backed hosting without breaking existing links (opens new window).
Redirect logic will only be evaluated if the requested path is not in the DAG. Any performance impact associated with checking for the existence of a
_redirects file or evaluating redirect rules will only be incurred for non-existent paths. If there are any errors reading or parsing the
_redirects file, the error codes will be returned with an HTTP 500 status code.
# How to set up
To define rules that will be executed when the requested path is not found in the DAG, there must be a file named
_redirects stored underneath the root CID of the website. This
_redirects file must be a text file containing one or more lines that follow the format explained below.
# Format of the
Each line contained within the
_redirects file has 3 basic components:
from to [status]
frompath. This specifies the path to be redirected from.
topath. This specifies the path to be redirected to.
statuscomponent. This part is optional and specifies the HTTP status code that will be returned. (301, 404, etc.)
For example, if you removed
home.html and want to temporarily redirect traffic from
_redirects file should contain a line that looks something like this:
/home.html /index.html 302
# Status codes
200- OK (redirect will be treated as a rewrite, returning payload from alternative content path without changing the URL shown in the browser).
301- Permanent redirect (the default status).
302- Found (commonly used for temporary redirects).
404- Not found (defines custom 404 page).
410- Gone (the requested content has been permanently removed).
451- Unavailable for legal reasons.
Placeholders are named variables that can be used to match path segments in the
from path and inject them into the
This is useful for redirecting users to their desired content, even if the way your website is organized changed.
For example, if I wanted to search for an article titled "hello world" that was written on June 15, 2022, I could search for it like this:
/posts/06/15/2022/hello-world and be redirected to
/posts/:month/:day/:year/:title /articles/:year/:month/:day/:title 301
There is also a special catch-all placeholder named
:splat which represents everything captured via
/blog/* /new-blog/:splat 302
IPFS hosting supports only a subset of pre-existing standards supported by Cloudflare (opens new window) and Netlify (opens new window).
There is no overwrite/shadowing: the file is evaluated only when requested path is not found in a DAG.
For more detailed information about supported features, check out the
_redirects file specification (opens new window).
# Catch all and PWA/SPA support
200 status will be treated as a rewrite, returning OK without changing the URL shown in the browser. This staus code can be used to build Progressive Web Apps (opens new window) and Single Page Applications (opens new window).
/app/* /app/index.html 200
/app/this-does-not-exist will return HTTP 200 response with content from
# Redirect an old URL to a new place
301 status is a permanent redirect, this is the default status code used when no code is specified.
The two rules below mean the same thing:
/old/docs.html /new/documentation.html /old/docs.html /new/documentation.html 301
302 status is commonly used for temporary redirects.
/home /under-construction.html 302
For advanced and catch-all redirects, see Placeholders.
# Add a custom 404 page to your website
_redirects is evaluated only when requested path does not exist,
it is possible to define a custom 404 page for your website:
/* /custom-404.html 404
With the above rule, opening
/this-does-not-exist will return HTTP 404 Not Found error response with the payload of a custom error page defined in